Grammar Translation
1. Instruction is given in the native language of the students.
2. There is little use of the target language for communication.
3. Focus is on grammatical explaining.
4. There is early reading of difficult texts.
5. A typical exercise is to translate sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.
6. A result of this approach is usually an inability on the part of the student to use the language for
7. The teacher does not have to be able to speak the target language.
Direct Approach
8. No use of the mother tongue is permitted.
9. Lessons begin with dialogues and anecdotes in modern conversational style.
10. Actions and pictures are used to make meaning clear.
11. Grammar is learned inductively.
12. Literary texts are read for pleasure and are not analyzed grammatically.
13. The target culture is also taught inductively.
14. The teacher must be a native speaker or have nativelike proficiency in the target language.
Reading Approach
15. Only the grammar useful for the reading comprehension is taught.
16. Vocabulary is controlled at first (based on frequency and usefulness) and then expanded.
17. Translation is once more a respectable classroom procedure.
18. Reading comprehension is the only language skill emphasized.
19. The teacher does not need to have good oral proficiency in the target language.
20. Lessons begin with dialogues.
21. Imitation and memorization are used, based on the assumption that language is habit formation.
22. Grammatical structures are sequenced and rules are taught inductively.
23. Skills are sequenced: listening, speaking—reading, writing postponed.
24. Pronunciation is stressed from the beginning.
25. Vocabulary is severely limited in initial stages.
26. A great effort is made to prevent learner errors.
27. Language is often manipulated without regard to meaning or context.
28. The teacher must be a proficiency only in the structures, vocabulary, etc. that he or she is teaching since learning activities and materials are carefully controlled.
29. The spoken language is primary.
30. All language material is practiced orally before being presented in written form (reading and writing are taught only after an oral based in lexical and grammatical forms has been established.)
31. Only the target language should be used in the classroom.
32. Efforts are made to ensure that the most general and useful lexical items are presented.
33. Grammatical structures are graded from simple to complex.
34. New items (lexical and grammatical) are introduced and practiced situationally.
35. Language learning is viewed as rule acquisition, not habit formation.
36. Instruction is often individualized; learners are responsible for their own learning.
37. Grammar must be taught but it cam be taught deductively (rules first; practice later) and/or inductively (rules can either be stated after practice or left s implicit information for the learners to process on their own.)
38. Pronunciation is de-emphasized; perfection is viewed as unrealistic and unattainable.
39. Reading and writing are once again as important as listening and
40. Vocabulary instruction is once again important, especially at intermediate and advanced levels.
41. Errors are viewed as inevitable, to be used constructively I the learning process.
42. The teacher is expected to have good general proficiency in the target language as well as an ability to analyze the target language.
Affective humanistic
43. Respect is emphasized for the individual (each student, the teacher) and for his or her feelings.
44. Communication that is meaningful to the learner is emphasized.
45. Instruction involves much work in pairs and small groups.
46. Class atmosphere is viewed as more important than materials and methods.
47. Peer support and interaction are viewed as necessary for learning.
48. Learning a foreign language is viewed as a self-realization experience.
49. The teacher is a counselor or facilitator.
50. The teacher should be proficient in the target language and the student’s native language since to translation may be used heavily in the initial stages to help students feel at ease; later it is gradually phased out.
Comprehensive based
51. Listening comprehension is very important and is viewed as the basic skill that will allow speaking, reading, and writing to develop spontaneously over time, given the right conditions.
52. Learners should begin by listen to meaningful speck and by responding nonverbally in meaningful ways before they produce any language themselves.
53. Learners should not speak until they feel ready to do so; this results in better pronunciation than if the learner is forced to speak immediately.
54. Learners progress by being exposed to meaningful input that is just one step beyond their level of competence.
55. Rule learning may help learners monitor or become aware of what they do, but it will not aid their acquisition or spontaneous use of the target language.
56. Error correction is seen as unnecessary and perhaps even counterproductive; the important thing is the learners can understand and can make themselves understood.
57. If the teacher is not native speaker, appropriate materials such as audio tapes and videotapes must be available to provide the appropriate input for the learners.
58. It is assumed that the goal of language teaching is learner ability to communicate in the target language.
59. It is assumed that the content of a language course will include semantic notions and social functions, not just linguistic structures.
60. Students regularly work in groups or pairs to transfer (and, if necessary, negotiate) meaning in situations in which one person has information that the other(s) lack.
61. Students often engage in role play or dramatization to adjust their use of the target language to different social contexts.
62. Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect real-life situations and demands.
63. Skills are integrated from the beginning; a given activity might involve reading, speaking, listening, and also writing (this assumes that learners are educated and literate).
64. The teacher’s role is primarily to facilitate communication and only secondarily to correct errors.
65. The teacher should be able to use the target language fluently and appropriately.
66. It involved learners in using language for purposes which go beyond merely practicing the language in order to learn it.
67. It also has a context from which the purpose for language emerges.
68. The purpose and context stimulate the learners to do something through language.
69. The purposeful activity leads towards to a product.
70. It encourages learners to make a public presentation of their work.
71. The process gives learners more responsibility and choice for what they present.
72. Public presentations are followed by language analysis activities where the students focus on accuracy in language after completion of a task.

Which of these approaches do you hope will have more influence on your teaching in future?
• What strategies will you use to make your teaching more effective and meaningful?
(Courtesy of Alice Chiu)
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(posted by Rahmah)



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